담양출장맛사지➢예약금없는출장샵╅담양전주 모텔 추천【담양홍대 안마방 위치】☀《담양일본 마사지 야동》χ담양서현역 마사지ω담양부평 마사지☲담양발마사지卐담양최음제 마사지↸담양양평 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

부산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

담양출장맛사지↺24시출장샵╖담양전주 모텔 추천【담양밀양 안마방】◎《담양춘천 안마방》⇩담양출장안마♖담양tumblr 안마방├담양긴장성 두통 마사지╋담양일본 안마방 야동◎담양모텔 출장안마

The governments of more than 190 nations 김천스포츠마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

담양출장맛사지→예약フ담양전주 모텔 추천【담양후불제 출장샵】«《담양부산역 안마방》↩담양안와상융기 마사지◎담양마사지 핸플☆담양출장업소♂담양마사지 중독◕담양여자 모텔

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

담양출장맛사지☴예약◦담양전주 모텔 추천【담양마사지 사진】┯《담양출장아가씨》┘담양해운대 아가씨★담양거제 안마방➸담양모텔 찌라시❖담양안마방 핸드폰☶담양아산 출장 만남

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

담양출장맛사지╖예약금없는출장샵┛담양전주 모텔 추천【담양안마방 핸드폰】シ《담양출장샵강추》┍담양마사지◎담양김해 안마방┌담양콜걸강추↺담양육덕 마사지↱담양안마방 안마

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부산인계동 안마방 후기 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

담양출장맛사지➻24시출장샵╞담양전주 모텔 추천【담양nhdta 마사지】♝《담양안마방 입에 사정》▒담양남성 전용 마사지↩담양평택역 안마방☽담양대딸방▩담양만수동 마사지ヘ담양타이마사지 불법

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

담양출장맛사지담양출장맛사지

  • 동두천안양 안마방
  • 담양하당 마사지
  • 담양출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    담양출장맛사지⇔출장부르는법⇔담양전주 모텔 추천【담양삿포로 안마방】ヌ《담양마사지 기획물》0담양엄태웅 안마방➠담양안마사 자격증♪ 담양마사지 크림↶담양전주 마사지┣담양은평구 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 대전마사지 근육 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    gogotown.xyz
    상주부평 마사지 카지노사이트 용인청라 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    담양출장맛사지☪예약•담양전주 모텔 추천【담양모유 마사지】↫《담양판상근 마사지》┿담양음경 마사지↝담양서양 마사지✎담양안마방 똥꼬➺담양답십리 안마방☣담양헬로 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 금산출장안마 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    담양출장맛사지◦출장부르는법➸담양전주 모텔 추천【담양군포 마사지】☂《담양전립선 마사지 방법》┃담양안마방 노출↸담양마사지 레전드 품번⇪담양조루 안마방╎담양안마방 번호♡담양아비게일 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대구출장안마 .

    서산안마방 터치
    철원모텔 보도 카지노사이트 진안안중 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    담양출장맛사지┿예약♕담양전주 모텔 추천【담양안마방 하드】ニ《담양화명동 마사지》↾담양구미 모텔 가격•담양유흥인 토렌트┞담양여주 모텔 추천✎담양광주 여관┚담양진주 가격

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 부산출장안마 .

    담양출장맛사지↺출장부르는법■담양전주 모텔 추천【담양안마방 한번싸면】☇《담양팔 마사지》⇤담양동암역 마사지⇚담양세종 마사지┲담양안마방 추천☀담양안마방 백마☞담양안중 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 군산이천 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    담양출장맛사지♧24시출장샵┢담양전주 모텔 추천【담양울산 삼산동 안마방】╉《담양나고야 여성전용 마사지》☆담양조건 출장↶담양제주도 안마방 추천┃담양안마방 단발◎담양안마방 누드◦담양성인마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    담양출장맛사지▨예약卐담양전주 모텔 추천【담양커플 마사지 tumblr】0《담양왁싱 마사지》♤담양콜걸추천♜담양안산 안마방 추천☋담양한국 마사지╄담양마사지 카운터 알바ⓞ담양강서구청 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 부안안면 비대칭 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 울산출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 동인천마사지 전단지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    담양출장맛사지♙24시출장샵├담양전주 모텔 추천【담양강원 랜드 근처 마사지】▦《담양tumblr 마사지》╙담양강남 왁싱샵⇖담양일본 마사지 야동↺담양장한평 안마방☐담양안마방 떡╩담양안마방 안마

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 제주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    담양출장맛사지α출장부르는법♮담양전주 모텔 추천【담양안마방 싸면 끝】┓《담양도쿄 안마방》⇃담양안마방 오랄☢담양별내 마사지➸담양마사지 만화◑담양마사지 간판 구분✲담양답십리 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    남양주지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지
    군산출장안마 무안마사지 수면 전주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    담양출장맛사지⊕출장부르는법♪담양전주 모텔 추천【담양계룡시 안마방】┻《담양마사지 볼》⇁담양정준하 마사지✦담양안마방 초보⇩담양블라디보스톡 마사지☆담양안마방 아쿠아セ담양부산 여관 가격

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.담양출장맛사지담양구로 마사지κ담양무거동 출장☻《담양동래 안마방》담양당진 안마방♔담양소프 마사지⇘담양안마방 어플➴담양태국 에스코트 비용⇚대전출장샵예약담양천호 안마방❃담양타이 마사지 퇴폐▫〖담양단체 안마방〗담양멜라니⇇담양안마방 ts♐담양화성 마사지♪담양jav 마사지♀담양출장맛사지정선미아 안마방담양게이 안마방♪ 담양남성전용마사지↷「담양마사지 가격」담양소라넷 마사지╩담양예약금 없는 출장☣담양스웨디시 마사지κ담양파주 안마방π담양출장 만남 대행✏담양출장아가씨☼〖담양서울역 안마방〗담양강릉 안마방┇담양국노☀담양합성동 안마방╯담양사당 출장╧담양대만 호텔 마사지✪담양대화역 마사지☏(담양논현 안마방)담양황제 마사지•담양유두 마사지╜담양포르치오 마사지✌담양쿤타이 마사지◦담양서울 조건 카톡⇌담양아주대 안마방❤{담양출장샵예약}담양수원역 안마방↖담양대림동 마사지✔담양안마방 레베카▷담양마사지 의자→24시출장샵남원인천공항 마사지출장부르는법담양전립선 마사지 효과◦담양안마방 구분✄﹛담양베트남 마사지 후기﹜담양호텔 마사지↿담양마사지 테라피»담양광명시 안마방═담양신포동 마사지☻담양출장맛사지담양출장맛사지xlsx.xyz담양오산 안마방담양연예인 마사지담양단양 안마방담양구리 안마방담양출장맛사지담양칠곡 안마방┑담양대전 모텔 가격↽〈담양역삼역 안마방〉담양마사지 가격⇏담양태국 마사지 썰↝담양마누라 마사지♪ 담양유흥 마사지♮양구만남

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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